It should be noted that rogue waves are considered to be rare, extreme amplitude, localized wave packets, which are subject of great interest now in various areas of physics. Herewith, fiber laser systems provided abundant nonlinear dynamics are perfect in an examination of optical RW formation. Moreover, fiber lasers have great research progress on rogue waves.
To be more precise, fiber laser systems act as a dissipative nonlinear optical system and they are widely used for the study of optical solitons. Ultrafast fiber lasers allow examining soliton interactions, molecules, rains, noise-like pulses, and soliton explosions, which are closely linked to the RW generation.
Additionally, these laser systems offer a proper platform for the production of dissipative RWs. It is possible to measure the dynamic of RWs within each round trip in a fiber laser. These waves in fiber laser systems are not new and have been already tested, therefore, the study of dissipative RWs in laser systems continues quickly developing.
Rogue waves in fiber lasers are possible to be categorized by laser beam duration: slow, fast and ultrafast RWs. Various mechanisms take part in their generation. Herewith, the measurement of ultrafast RWs is highly challenging applying the standard technique. Also, types of dissipative RWs emitted by fiber laser systems include RWs created by chaotic structures, dark three-sister RWs, and the laser beam pulse waves produced as a result of the multiple-pulse interaction.
Fiber lasers enable generating vortex laser beams that offer promising applications in the quantum optics, optical micromanipulation, rotation detection, WDM (mode-division multiplexing) systems, and nonlinear fiber optics. These laser beams find applications in modulating elements, containing the mode selective couplers, long-period fiber gratings, and microstructured fiber facets. Moreover, there are the mode-locked vortex beams, that is why the optical RWs based on the vortex laser beams in the fiber laser systems remain popular research topics, favoring the further development of nonlinear optics.
Laser systems without the mode locker installed in the cavity allow emitting ultrashort laser beam pulses, for instance, the temporal cavity solitons. To be more precise, “when the dispersion and nonlinearity are balanced in the fiber lasers, TCSs are formed, which can transmit indefinitely and keep their shape in the fiber cavity”. Thus, fiber laser systems are perfect in observation of the generation of optical RWs as well to investigate their behavior because rogue waves present a threat to the safety of sea-going personnel and ships.
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